This dataset combines two other datasets: Cholera deaths by building (see deaths) and the Broad Street pump, extracted from the 8 pumps dataset (see pumps). 60 polygons were created that represent rings that start at the location of the Broad Street pump and progress in 5-meter increments around the pump. These rings were created in QGIS to compare them in terms of cholera deaths, thus the dataset contains the count of deaths per ring. Since the outer rings cover more area than then inner rings, we also included the ring area (in squared meters). This was used to create a variable for death density, i.e. deaths per square meter.

The documentation is available at:


The Geoda script is available at:


Overview of data

Variable Description
ID Unique ID
area Area (in squared meters)
deaths Number of deaths per building
deathdens Number of deaths per ring divided by area

Prepared by Center for Spatial Data Science. Last updated March 10, 2023. Data provided “as is,” no warranties.