Opioid Environment Policy Scan (OEPS)

A database project providing access to data at multiple spatial scales to characterize the multi-dimensional risk environment impacting opioid use in justice populations across the United States.

View the Project on GitHub GeoDaCenter/opioid-policy-scan

About OEPS

The Opioid Environment Policy Scan (OEPS) is a free, open-source database providing access to data at multiple spatial scales to help characterize the multi-dimensional risk environment impacting opioid use in justice populations across the United States.

The OEPS was developed for the Justice Community Opioid Innovation Network (JCOIN) by Marynia Kolak, Qinyun Lin, Susan Paykin, Moksha Menghaney, and Angela Li of the Healthy Regions and Policies Lab and Center for Spatial Data Science at the University of Chicago. Data is also available JCOIN Network through the JCOIN Data Commons.

The database is guided by the risk environment framework (Rhodes, 2002) to identify more than four dozen datasets and variable constructs across six spheres of influence: Policy, Health, Demographic, Economic, Physical Environment, and COVID-19. Most OEPS data are also available at multiple spatial scales, including Census tract, ZIP Code Tract Area (ZCTA), county, and state levels.

Documentation

Please refer to the complete Data Documentation for more information about individual datasets, variables, and data methods.

Data Overview

Variable constructs are grouped thematically below to highlight the multi-dimensional risk environment of opioid use in justice populations. In the Metadata column, linked pages provide more detail about the data source, descriptions of data cleaning or processing, and individual variables included.

Geographic Boundaries

Variable Construct Variable Proxy Source Metadata Spatial Scale
Geographic Boundaries State, County, Census Tract, Zip Code Tract Area (ZCTA) US Census, 2018 Geographic Boundaries State, County, Tract, Zip
Crosswalk files County, Census Tract, Zip Code Tract Area (ZCTA) HUD’s Office of Policy Development and Research (PD&R) Crosswalk Files County, Tract, Zip

Policy Variables

Variable Construct Variable Proxy Source Metadata Spatial Scale
Prison Incarceration Rates Prison population rate and prison admission rate by gender and ethnicity Vera Institute of Justice, 2016 PS01 / Prison Variables County
Jail Incarceration Rates Jail population rate by gender and ethnicity Vera Institute of Justice, 2017 PS02 / Jail Variables County
Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs (PDMP) Any PDMP; Operational PDMP; Must-access PDMP; Electronic PDMP OPTIC, 2017 PS03 / PDMP State
Good Samaritan Laws Any Good Samaritan Law; Good Samaritan Law protecting arrest OPTIC, 2017 PS04 / GSL State
Naloxone Access Laws Any Naloxone law; law allowing distribution through a standing or protocal order; law allowing pharmacists prescriptive authority OPTIC, 2017 PS05 / NAL State
Medicaid Expenditure Total Medicaid spending KFF, 2019 PS06 / MedExp State
Medicaid Expansion Spending for adults who have enrolled through Medicaid expansion KFF, 2018 PS07 / MedExpan State
Syringe Services Laws Laws clarifying legal status for syringe exchange, distribution, and possession programs LawAtlas, 2019 PS08 / Syringe State
Medical Marijuana Laws Law authorizing adults to use medical marijuana PDAPS, 2017 PS09 / MedMarijLaw State
State & Local Government Expenditures Government spending on public health, welfare, public safety, and corrections US Census, 2018 PS11 / Government Expenditures State, Local


Health Variables

Variable Construct Variable Proxy Source Metadata Spatial Scale
Drug-related death rate Death rate from drug-related causes CDC WONDER, 2019 10-year ave. Health01 / Drug-Related Death Rate State, County
Hepatitis C rates HepC prevalence and mortality HepVu Health02 / Hepatitis C State, County
Physicians Number of Primary Care and Specialist Physicians Dartmouth Atlas, 2010 Health03 / Physicians Tract, County, State
Access to MOUDs Distance to nearest MOUD US Census, SAMHSA, Vivitrol, 2020 Access01 / Access: MOUDs County, Tract, Zip
Access to Health Centers Distance to nearest FQHC US Census, US COVID Atlas, HRSA, 2020 Access02 / Access: FQHCs Tract, Zip
Access to Hospitals Distance to nearest hospital US Census, CovidCareMap, 2020 Access03 / Access: Hospitals Tract, Zip
Access to Pharmacies Distance to nearest pharmacy US Census, InfoGroup 2018 Access04 / Access: Pharmacies Tract, Zip
Access to Mental Health Providers Distance to nearest mental health provider US Census, SAMSHA 2020 Access05 / Access: Mental Health Providers Tract, Zip
Access to Substance Use Treatment Facilities Distance to nearest substance use treatment facility SAMHSA, SSATS 2021 Access06 / Access: Substance Use Treatment Tract, Zip
Access to Opioid Treatment Programs Distance to nearest Opioid treatment program SAMHSA, SSATS 2021 Access 07 / Access: Opioid Treatment Programs Tract, Zip


Demographic Variables

Variable Construct Variable Proxy Source Metadata Spatial Scale
Race & Ethnicity Percentages of population defined by categories of race and ethnicity ACS, 2018 5-year DS01/ Race & Ethnicity Variables State, County, Tract, Zip
Age Age group estimates and percentages of population ACS, 2018 5-year DS01 / Age Variables State, County, Tract, Zip
Population with a Disability Percentage of population with a disability ACS, 2018 5-year DS01 / Other Demographic Variables State, County, Tract, Zip
Educational Attainment Population without a high school degree ACS, 2018 5-year DS01 / Other Demographic Variables State, County, Tract, Zip
Social Determinants of Health (SDOH) SDOH Neighborhood Typologies Kolak et al, 2020 DS02 / SDOH Typology Tract
Social Vulnerability Index (SVI) SVI Rankings CDC, 2018 DS03 / SVI County, Tract, Zip
Veteran Population Population as defined by veteran status ACS, 2017 5-year DS04 / Veteran Population Variables State, County, Tract, Zip
Homeless Population Population as defined by momeless status ACS, 2019 5-year, Housing and Urban Development, 2020 DS05 / Homeless Population Variables State, County, Tract, Zip


Economic Variables

Variable Construct Variable Proxy Source Metadata Spatial Scale
Employment Trends Percentages of population employed in High Risk of Injury Jobs, Educational Services, Health Care, Retail industries ACS, 2018 5-year EC01/ Jobs by Industry State, County, Tract, Zip
Unemployment Rate Unemployment rate ACS, 2014-2018 EC03/ Economic Variables State, County, Tract, Zip
Poverty Rate Percent classified as below poverty level, based on income ACS, 2018 5-year EC03/ Economic Variables State, County, Tract, Zip
Per Capita Income Per capita income in the past 12 months ACS, 2018 5-year EC03/ Economic Variables State, County, Tract, Zip
Foreclosure Rate Mortgage foreclosure and severe delinquency rate HUD, 2009 EC04 / Foreclosure Rate State, County, Tract


Built Environment Variables

Variable Construct Variable Proxy Source Metadata Spatial Scale
Housing Occupancy Rate Percent occupied units ACS, 2018 5-year BE01 / Housing State, County, Tract, Zip
Housing Vacancy Rate Percent vacant units ACS, 2018 5-year BE01 / Housing State, County, Tract, Zip
Long Term Occupancy Percentage of population living in current housing for 20+ years ACS, 2018 5-year BE01 / Housing State, County, Tract, Zip
Mobile Homes Percent of housing units classified as mobile homes ACS, 2018 5-year BE01 / Housing State, County, Tract, Zip
Rental Rates Percent of housing units occupied by renters ACS, 2018 5-year BE01 / Housing State, County, Tract, Zip
Housing Unit Density Housing units per square mile ACS, 2018 5-year BE01 / Housing State, County, Tract, Zip
Urban/Suburban/Rural Classification Classification of areas as rural, urban or suburban USDA-ERS BE02 / Rural-Urban Classifications County, Tract, Zip
Alcohol Outlet Density Alcohol outlets per square mile, alcohol outlets per capita InfoGroup, 2018 BE03 / Alcohol Outlets State, County, Tract, Zip
Hypersegregated Cities US metropolitan areas where black residents experience hypersegregation Massey et al, 2015 BE04 / Community Overlays County
Southern Black Belt US counties where 30% of the population identified as Black or African American US Census, 2000 BE04 / Community Overlays County
Native American Reservations Percent area of total land in Native American Reservations US Census, TIGER, 2018 BE04 / Community Overlays County
Residential Segregation Indices Three index measures of segregation: dissimilarity, interaction, isolation ACS, 2018 5-year BE05 / Residential Segregation County


COVID Variables

| Variable Construct | Variable Proxy | Source | Metadata | Spatial Scale | |:—————— | ————– | —— | ——– | ————- | | Essential Worker Jobs | Percentage of population employed in Essential Jobs as defined during the COVID-19 pandemic | ACS, 2014-2018 | EC02 / Jobs by Occupation | State, County, Tract, Zip | | Cumulative Case Count | Daily cumulative raw case count (01/21/20 - 03/03/2021) | The New York Times, 2021 | COVID01 / COVID Variables | State, County | | Adjusted Case Count per 100K | Daily cumulative adjusted case count per 100K population (01/21/20 - 03/03/2021) | The New York Times, 2021 | COVID02 / COVID Variables | State, County | | 7-day Average Case Count | 7-day average case count (01/21/20 - 03/03/2021) | The New York Times, 2021 | COVID03 / COVID Variables | State, County | | Historical 7-day Average Adjusted Case Count per 100K | 7-day average adjusted case count per 100K population (01/21/20 - 03/03/2021)| The New York Times, 2021 | COVID04 / COVID Variables | State, County |


Citation

Marynia Kolak, Qinyun Lin, Susan Paykin, Moksha Menghaney, & Angela Li. (2021, May 11). GeoDaCenter/opioid-policy-scan: Opioid Environment Policy Scan Data Warehouse (Version v0.1-beta). Zenodo. http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4747876

Team

The OEPS database was developed for the Justice Community Opioid Innovation Network (JCOIN) by Marynia Kolak, Qinyun Lin, Susan Paykin, Moksha Menghaney, and Angela Li of the Healthy Regions and Policies Lab and Center for Spatial Data Science at the University of Chicago. Contact Susan Paykin with any questions.

The University of Chicago serves as the JCOIN Methodology and Advanced Analytics Resource Center (MAARC), providing data infrastructure and statistical and analytic expertise to support individual JCOIN studies and cross-site data synchronization. JCOIN is part of the NIH HEAL (Helping to End Addiction Long-termSM) Initiative. The NIH HEAL InitiativeSM supports a wide range of programs to develop new or improved prevention and treatment strategies for opioid addiction. JCOIN conducts research to address gaps in Opioid Use Disorder (OUD) treatment and related service in a wide range of criminal justice settings, including jails, drug and other problem-solving courts, policing and diversion, re-entry, and probation and parole.

Acknowledgements

This research was supported by the National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, through the NIH HEAL Initiative under award number UG3DA123456. The contents of this publication are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views of the NIH, the Initiative, or the participating sites.

Updated August 2021